Printing of automotive parts with periodic rotation of layers

New breakthrough in metal printing using additive manufacturing with periodic layer rotation is explored in the review Materials. Unlike traditional machining methodologies, additive manufacturing (AM) in the metal production process has the privilege of fabricating complex shapes and enables customizable production.

To study: A study of the mechanical properties of an automotive part additively printed using periodic layer rotation strategies. Image Credit: Zyabich /

Nevertheless, the anisotropy of the macrostructure occurs as a result of AM processing parameters such as the design processes, melting, melting and condensation of the powder material.

The scan direction determines the anisotropy of the macrostructure, which is transmitted as orthogonal anisotropy whenever a single layer is stacked on a path. The classical theory of lamination is used here to simply overlay the personal orthotropic layers. The authors used this strategy to determine whether the mechanical characteristics of the product are expressed isotopically using a strategy of periodic rotation of the layers.

AM and the idea behind it

The basic idea behind additive manufacturing (AM) is to directly generate the desired shape from 3D digital modeling data. Components are stacked layer by layer to develop products, as opposed to traditional machining operations such as molding or cutting.

Due to this fundamental process difference, new procedures (such as setup for AM) at the additive product development stage can overcome the drawbacks of existing conventional manufacturing techniques and easily control the AM process. As a result, AM is gaining popularity as a desirable manufacturing technique for the design and manufacture of high performance components.

Diagram of the 67 ° rotation increments of a layer using a raster sweep strategy.

Diagram of the 67 ° rotation increments of a layer using a raster sweep strategy. Image Credit: Yang, M., et al., Materials

Different process to produce AM metal

Metal AM has great molding freedom, including such custom designs; however, the mechanical and physical properties of the device may suffer due to the anisotropy of the configuration depending on the nature of the production process.

The DED method is additively produced by deposition in a local area, while the PBF method is a molding technique that involves melting and stacking an area of ​​flat powder with the preferential thermal energy of a sensor. The PBF process, in particular, is widely used for the FA process as a typical example of metallic FA in the manufacture of products.

Limitation of additive manufacturing

The substance behaves thermally during melting and crystallization, and the solidified microstructure has directionality based on the path of motion of the heat source. This has an impact on the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the alloys.

As a major event, residual stress induces deformation, resulting in deformation or damage of the product. The anisotropic property of the good or service is the directional indices of the microstructure. This problem causes directional imprecision in the good or service or affects the dynamic or static behavior of a structure, adding another parameter to be considered during the design phase.

Space frame and node parts of the vehicle.

Space frame and node parts of the vehicle. Image credit: Yang, M., et al., Materials

This behaves as a design restriction and reduces the utility of metallic AM with high material properties. To solve these problems, a strategy of periodic rotation of the layers was used to repress the directionality of the material.

Research process using the sporadically rotating layers technique

Researchers use the AM technique of sporadically rotating layers to numerically assess the material characteristics of products. The intrinsic strain method has been widely used to simulate additive processes. This methodology is very consistent with the approach used in traditional stratification theory to categorize composite actions.

The PBF process, like the methods used to make composite laminates, is a layer-by-layer manufacturing technique. The complete system is stratified in both situations and anisotropy is induced. The series of hatches in the AM process have the same impact as the direction of the fibers of the composite in this case. As a result, the material properties at the product level can be inferred using the classic layering concept.

The result of the research

AM created a shock absorber handrail for a vehicle to see if the mechanical characteristics can be decently recognized as isotropic. The compressive strength and vibration tests of the product were compared with the finite element analysis and experimental data. As a result of a comparison, the element was declared to be macroscopically isotropic because the load-displacement pattern and fracture location, as well as the resonant frequencies and mode shape, coincided.

Advantage of Printing Cars Using AM Methods

It demonstrates that the stress exceeds the traction in the inner area of ​​the upper and lower flanges. Similar plastic deformation results confirm that the phenomenon was highest in the area of ​​the inner flange. The experimental data and the EF analysis model had very similar modal forms.

The error in the natural frequency results was confirmed when the higher order method ended; nonetheless, this was a critical error which arose because the component wording was limited due to the FE modeling character traits.

The precision of the natural frequency at higher orders may be best expressed when sculpting with a larger collection of parts or more than a second-order item. As a result, it was claimed that the results of the dynamic analysis of the FE model, towards which the isotropic properties of the material were implemented, and the natural frequency and modal shape of the experiments were in good agreement.

The references

Yang, M., et al. (2021). A study of the mechanical properties of an automotive part additively printed using periodic layer rotation strategies. Materials 2022, 15 (1), 70; Publication: December 22, 2021.

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